martes, 18 de septiembre de 2012


The Simple present tense is used to describe habitual actions that occur with some frequency and does not refer to whether is happening at present.




Here are the ways affirmative, interrogative and negative of this tense:

The table top is taken as an example the verb PLAY (jugar).
  • Note that in the affirmative Mode, in the 3rd person singular, add an "S" to the verb.
  • In the Interrogative and Negative Mode is used the auxiliary DO, but in the 3rd person singular is used the auxiliary DOES and removes the "S" to the verb.

*There are some special cases such as if the verb used ends in "SS", "SH", "CH", "O" and "X" to form the 3rd person singular in the affirmative is added "ES" . Here are some examples:

If the verb is FISH (Pescar), will be combined: He fishes at the sea. (Él pesca en el mar)
If the verb is KISS (Besar), will be combined: She kisses to her boyfriend. (Ella besa a su novio)
If the verb is WATCH (Observar), will be combined: He watches the mountain. (Él observa la montaña)
If the verb is FIX (Reparar), will be combined: He fixes his car. (Él repara su carro)
If the verb is GO (Ir), will be combined: She goes to the office. (Ella va a la oficina)

Another exception is if the verb ends in "Y" after a consonant. To form the 3rd person singular is replaced this "Y" with an "i" accompanied by the ending "ES". For example:
If the verb is STUDY (estudiar) will be combined: 
EX: She studies the lesson: Ella estudia la lección.

For the negative form can be employed DON´T (DO NOT), DOESN´T (DOES NOT).

I do not play tennis: Yo no juego Tennis
He does not work in an office: Él no trabaja en una oficina
They do not travel to Madrid: Ellos no viajan a Madrid

Complete the following questions and click on the button (Correct Exercise) for the correction of this exercise.

Q1 of 10: I __________ in a bank.

Q2 of 10: Barbara __________ everyday.

Q3 of 10: He __________ in Canada.

Q4 of 10: We __________ English.

Q5 of 10: What are you doing right now? I __________ my homework.

Q6 of 10: We __________ to the cinema next weekend.

Q7 of 10: He __________ next week.

Q8 of 10: ________ the train _________ at 8:00?

Q9 of 10: __________ to the party tonight?

Q10 of 10: Michael __________ a new car.


transpcarro7.gif (9709 bytes)NOUNS

What is a Noun?

noun is a word used to name a person, animal, place, thing, and abstract idea. Nouns are usually the first words which small children learn.

A noun can function in a sentence as a Subject, a Direct Object, an Indirect Object, a Subject Complement, an Object Complement, an Appositive, an Adjective or an Adverb.

  •  NOUN GENDER: in some languages, nouns are assigned to genders, such as masculine, female and neuter (or other combinations). The gender of a noun ( as well as its number and case, where applicable) will often entail agreement in words that modify or are related to it.
      Example: Many common nouns, like "engineer" or "teacher," can refer to men or women. Once, many English nouns would change form depending on their gender -- for example, a man was called an "author" while a woman was called an "authoress" -- but this use of gender-specific nouns is very rare today. Those that are still used occasionally tend to refer to occupational categories, as in the following sentences:

*David Garrick was a very prominent eighteenth-century actor.
*Sarah Siddons was at the height of her career as an actress in the 1780s.
*The manager was trying to write a want ad, but he couldn´t decide whether he was advertising for a "waiter" or a "waitress" 
  • NOUN PLURALS:Most nouns change their form to indicate number by adding "-s" or "-es", as illustrated in the following pairs of sentences:
    *When Matthew was small he rarely told the truth if he thought he was going to be punished.
    *Many people do not believe that truths are self-evident.
    *As they walked through the silent house, they were startled by an unexpected echo.
    *I like to shout into the quarry and listen to the echoes that return.
    *He tripped over a box left carelessly in the hallway.
    *Since we are moving, we will need many boxes.
  • POSSESSIVE NOUNS:  In the possessive case, a noun or pronoun changes its form to show that it owns or is closely related to something else. Usually, nouns become possessive by adding a combination of an apostrophe and the letter "s."
 *You can form the possessive case of a singular noun that does not end in "s" by adding an apostrophe and "s," as in the following sentences:
The red suitcase is Cassandra's.
The only luggage that was lost was the prime minister's.
The exhausted recruits were woken before dawn by the drill sergeant's screams.
The miner's face was covered in coal dust.
*You can form the possessive case of a plural noun that does not end in "s" by adding an apostrophe and a "s," as in the following examples:
The children's mittens were scattered on the floor of the porch.
The sheep's pen was mucked out every day.
Since we have a complex appeal process, a jury's verdict is not always final.
The men's hockey team will be playing as soon as thewomen's team is finished.
The hunter followed the moose's trail all morning but lost it in the afternoon.

                        TYPES OF NOUNS

*Proper nouns are nouns that represent a unique entity (like a specific person or a specific place).

*Proper nouns as a general rule are capitalized in the English language.

* You always write a proper noun with a capital letter, since the noun represents the name of a specific person, place, or thing. The names of days of the week, months, historical documents, institutions, organizations, religions, their holy texts and their adherents are proper nouns.

* Common nouns which describe an entire group of entities (examples would be the nouns village or women).
* Common nouns as a general rule are not capitalized.
* You should write it with a capital letter only when it begins a sentence. A common noun is the opposite of a proper noun.


* Concrete nouns refer to their ability to register on your five senses. If you can see, hear, smell, taste, or feel the item, it's a concrete noun.

* A concrete noun is a noun which names anything (or anyone) that you can perceive through your physical senses: touch, sight, taste, hearing, or smell. A concrete noun is the opposite of a abstract noun.

* Abstract nouns on the other hand refer to abstract objects such as ideas or concepts, like the nouns "politeness" or "hatefulness".

* An abstract noun is a noun which names anything which you can not perceive through your five physical senses, and is the opposite of a concrete noun.

* Countable nouns are common nouns that can become a plural. They can combine with exact numbers (even one, as a singular) or indefinite numbers (like "a" or "an").

* A countable noun (or count noun) is a noun with both a singular and a plural form, and it names anything (or anyone) that you can count. You can make a countable noun plural and attach it to a plural verb in a sentence. Countable nouns are the opposite of non-countable nouns and collective nouns.

* Uncountable (or noncount) nouns are different form by the simple fact that  they can't become plural or combine with number words. 

* A non-countable noun (or mass noun) is a noun which does not have a plural form, and which refers to something that you could (or would) not usually count. A non-countable noun always takes a singular verb in a sentence. Non-countable nouns are similar to collective nouns, and are the opposite of countable nouns.

* Collective nouns name groups consisting of more than one individual or entity. The group is a single unit, but it has more than one member. Examples include "family", "committee", "corporation","faculty", "army", and "school".

* A collective noun is a noun naming a group of things, animals, or persons. You could count the individual members of the group, but you usually think of the group as a whole is generally as one unit. You need to be able to recognise collective nouns in order to maintain subject-verb agreement. A collective noun is similar to a non-countable noun, and is roughly the opposite of a countable noun.